The Weighted Majority Algorithm
score: 4 (4 votes) ·
The question whether randomized algorithms can have an advantage over deterministic algorithms is called the P vs BPP problem. As far as I know, most people believe that P=BPP, that is, randomization doesn't actually add power. However, nobody knows how to prove this. Furthermore, there exists an oracle relative to which P is not equal to BPP. Therefore any proof that P=BPP has to be nonrelativizing. This rules out a lot of the more obvious methods of proof.
see: complexity zoo