Pulse Oximetry & the Oxygen–Haemoglobin Dissociation Curve 2020-03-22T07:05:53.483Z · score: 7 (3 votes)
The BODY alignment game. Take a break, have a quick play. 2020-02-05T04:02:49.886Z · score: 3 (6 votes)
Chakras & Qi - Old Stories for the Base-Line Experience? 2019-12-08T04:22:11.111Z · score: 3 (5 votes)
The 5 Main Muscles Made Easy. 2019-12-07T09:17:50.359Z · score: 5 (5 votes)
Posture - Muscles, Assessment & The Body's Base-Line for Alignment. 2019-11-15T09:19:11.580Z · score: 6 (4 votes)
Myalgia of Imbalance. Physical Restrictions, Pain, Tension & Weird Sensations. 2019-10-29T14:58:17.652Z · score: 2 (4 votes)
Does the body have an almost infinite number of potential positions? 2019-10-19T05:39:26.883Z · score: 2 (1 votes)
Conscious Proprioception -Awareness of the Body's Position, Motion, Alignment & Balance. 2019-10-04T04:33:14.317Z · score: 19 (6 votes)
The Five Main Muscles: A Full Range of Natural Movement, Dynamic Alignment & Balance. 2019-09-01T03:22:38.247Z · score: 18 (13 votes)
Body Alignment & Balance. Midline Anatomy & the Median Plane. 2019-08-22T10:24:59.156Z · score: 12 (17 votes)


Comment by leggi on Taking Initial Viral Load Seriously · 2020-04-01T21:17:59.666Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

viral titer/titre is the technical term for "viral load" so would be more useful if looking for studies.

2 human studies I've quickly found....

Assessment of correlation between serum titers of hepatitis c virus and severity of liver disease

Dengue Viremia Titer, Antibody Response Pattern, and Virus Serotype Correlate with Disease Severity

Comment by leggi on Taking Initial Viral Load Seriously · 2020-04-01T15:31:36.502Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

Question - why is the term variolation being used?

Unless I am very much mistaken variolation is specific to smallpox.

Comment by leggi on Coronavirus: California case growth · 2020-03-31T14:51:14.776Z · score: 1 (3 votes) · LW · GW

Strongly up-voted because I believe the tone of a comment shouldn't be as an important consideration as the point being made.

Interesting ideas are good, feedback for the further development should also be considered good.

I still think rationality means thinking rationally.

(And I've a couple of big doses of unexplained negative karma on the posts I've created and would have much preferred some comment/feedback whatever the tone it took and Christian was one of the few that provided some.)

Comment by leggi on Coronavirus: Justified Practical Advice Thread · 2020-03-31T11:46:50.282Z · score: -1 (2 votes) · LW · GW

The top set of links aren't working but the study to URTI rates is very interesting.

Firstly for the use of 3 doses a month apart - one dose is the standard for BCG.

I had a BCG at about 7 years old due to contact with a diagnosed TB case. Age 11 I had a positive reaction to the tuberculin skin test (Mantoux) but still got given a second dose, even though I told the school nurse it wasn't recommended - cocky little sh!t even back then and I'm sure she stamped me twice as punishment... Now thinking good for me!

Also, that there was a strong immune response in elderly subjects who tend to be considered as having a weaker immune system overall.

Testing at 6 months from 1st dose:

There were significant increase of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in the BCG group compared to the placebo group. There were insignificant increase of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in the pre- and post-BCG group

Memory B cells are present "for decades" so for those that have received the BCG this effect should apply.

For bladder cancer:

BCG is put right into the bladder through a catheter.

A different mode of action than a standard BCG vaccination, not so much boosting the immune system but drawing attention to the cancer cells in a localised manner.

Regarding the "cytokine storm" seen in severe patients - would previous vaccination make this worse? Musings, no idea what reality will be. But countries with vaccination programs v. those without should provide some interesting data.

Did you come across any information about any specific antibodies have been associated with COVID19?

Comment by leggi on Coronavirus: Justified Practical Advice Thread · 2020-03-30T08:40:38.736Z · score: 4 (1 votes) · LW · GW
I'd recommend getting it if you haven't, or especially for your older relatives (given that the cost/side effects is well-understood and near-zero, whereas the benefits based on the below could be serious):

I would recommend doing more research before making recommendations like the above. tb-throwaway.

Start here: NHS Who should have BCG?.

To quote one line that you could investigate:

There's no evidence the BCG vaccine works for people over the age of 35.
Comment by leggi on Peter's COVID Consolidated Brief for 29 March · 2020-03-30T05:55:43.280Z · score: 3 (2 votes) · LW · GW
You need to practise these things

So true. I'm trained to surgical sterility and am very aware of everything I touch and when I'm contaminated but it is hard to be vigilant ....

  • Turn on tap.
  • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water for a long time to decontaminate hands.
  • Turn off tap and recontaminate hands.

Although my constant 'helping' of others in the household to maintain standards may get me beaten to death before coronavirus gets me. : )

Comment by leggi on March Coronavirus Open Thread · 2020-03-28T07:34:28.960Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

The current tests are looking for the presence of a specific virus - looking at the genome using RT-PCR technology so the answer is no. (eek at being so definite)

PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is a DNA amplification technique

but Coronavirus is RNA so reverse-transcriptase (RT) is used to make a DNA 'template' from the RNA.

Some info. from Cambridge and Glasgow Universities regarding Covid-19 Genomics UK Consortium - A project to map how COVID-19 spreads and behaves by using whole genome sequencing will show if the virus is mutating.

Consider the demographics of the populations. Age, concurrent disease, levels of smoking, air pollution etc...

Levels of testing/recording/reporting....

(hope this makes some sense - written in a rush)

Comment by leggi on COVID-19 growth rates vs interventions · 2020-03-28T06:30:42.040Z · score: 2 (2 votes) · LW · GW

Some first thoughts:

  • It only takes one person to infect you.
  • You can reduce your contact, but what about your contacts contacts?
    • How many people is the person serving in the grocery store coming into contact with?
    • How strict are they all with their precautions?
  • What about other members of the same household and all their contacts?
  • The recommended distance between people may not be sufficient to prevent transmission.
  • It's easy to break the distance rule (might just be a second or two even if being v. careful).
  • Fomite transmission (inanimate carrier of infectious diseases)
  • Pre-(noticed) symptomatic transmissions. What if someone has a fever during the night, how many people would notice it/associate it with COVID? (It always amazes me the denial some people can have about their symptoms.)

QUESTION - has anyone come across data about duration of a COVID-fever? (although there's a massive potential for variability between individuals so not sure the data would actually be useful/representative/meaningful but it'd be good to have whatever information is out there...)

Comment by leggi on March Coronavirus Open Thread · 2020-03-26T16:18:51.982Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW
virus is attacking the ACE2 molecules.

This is very interesting information. I was wondering (but not enough to actually research it) why diabetes mellitus (DM) was a bigger risk factor of severe disease than I would have associated with the "normal" increased risk with infections in patients with DM.

A quick search led me to this article in the Lancet.

The expression of ACE2 is substantially increased in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, who are treated with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers (ARBs).
Hypertension is also treated with ACE inhibitors and ARBs, which results in an upregulation of ACE2.
ACE2 can also be increased by thiazolidinediones and ibuprofen.

(has a) functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronavirus HCoV-NL63 and the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 virus)
Comment by leggi on LessWrong Coronavirus Agenda · 2020-03-26T12:54:15.423Z · score: 5 (4 votes) · LW · GW

yellow fever vaccine is one that springs to mind that also uses eggs in production

The yellow fever vaccine is made by growing yellow fever virus in mouse embryo cells and in chick embryo cells. The final preparation of the vaccine is made in eggs. Growing yellow fever virus in mouse and chick cells over and over again weakened it. Therefore, when this "live, weakened" virus is injected, a protective immune response develops without causing illness. SOURCE
Comment by leggi on COVID-19 transmission: Are we overemphasizing touching rather than breathing? · 2020-03-25T15:42:17.692Z · score: 4 (3 votes) · LW · GW


I am in no way saying this relates to COVID19 but to give an example of a virus that can spread a long distance 'in the wind'.

"foot and mouth disease" caused by a picornavirus affects cattle, pigs, sheep, goats (+ other cloven-footed animals).

... Virus was reported to travel over water >250 km (155 miles) from Brittany, France, to the Isle of Wight, UK, in 1981, but it usually travels no more than 10 km (~6 miles) over land. SOURCE
Comment by leggi on Open & Welcome Thread - March 2020 · 2020-03-24T16:48:17.706Z · score: 3 (2 votes) · LW · GW

I'm happy to read stuff and critique. (I go harsh but hopefully fair).

General editing/formatting/readability appraisals.

I'll be of most of use on bio-medical topics (although the discussions here about vaccine development are way above my knowledge base so I'd avoid that!)

Comment by leggi on March Coronavirus Open Thread · 2020-03-24T16:25:46.308Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

Covid-19 Genomics UK Consortium - A project to map how COVID-19 spreads and behaves by using whole genome sequencing.

Some info. from Cambridge and Glasgow Universities (UK government/NHS many other UK universities involved too).

Comment by leggi on March Coronavirus Open Thread · 2020-03-24T16:00:33.940Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

I've just stumbled across this press report:

A man has died and his wife is under critical care after the couple, both in their 60s, ingested chloroquine phosphate, an additive commonly used at aquariums to clean fish tanks. Within thirty minutes of ingestion, the couple experienced immediate effects requiring admittance to a nearby Banner Health hospital. 

No mention of how much they ingested.

Chloroquine phosphate for fish-tanks, not human grade.

But a little knowledge without understanding can be a dangerous thing ...

Comment by leggi on March Coronavirus Open Thread · 2020-03-24T13:18:36.572Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

Some quick thoughts if anyone wants to do a dive:

The article is talking about "live" yoghurt i.e. cultured milk with no other additives.

The main bacteria to culture milk into yogurt are:

Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus.

In what countries do people eat a lot of natural live yoghurt? (per capita not overall amounts). Bulgaria (a clue in the name of the first bacterium) Russia? Greece? Spring to mind. Local knowledge would help here.

What are the demographics of those populations? (total population, % of old folks most likely to suffer severe disease)

What's the COVID19 situation in these places?

The link says:

The cytokine storm is induced by the virus and the bacteria acting together.

I would want to see some evidence for this statement for instance levels of secondary infections being tested/confirmed/reported. (and the use of antibiotics as prophylactic or therapeutic agents - could antibiotics making things worse in some cases by killing of the good bacteria too????

Comment by leggi on What should we do once infected with COVID-19? · 2020-03-23T15:08:27.756Z · score: 3 (2 votes) · LW · GW

This image looks like a good guide of when to seek medical attention for a fever:

Comment by leggi on Should I buy a gun for home defense in response to COVID-19? · 2020-03-23T07:48:02.419Z · score: 4 (3 votes) · LW · GW

Do you know how to use a gun?

Where would you store it? Easy access to loaded gun or locked in a safe /unloaded.

Would you be willing to use a gun? (waving one round for home invader to disarm you and then have it pointed back at you - if they're not already armed.)

What risk factors are in your house (i.e. children) that having a gun might be more of a threat to household than invaders?

What kind of distance would be be defending yourself from? small apartment v. taking out intruder from the top of the stairs out of arms reach.

A lot of other things can be used for defence. Something I read as a kid with plenty of suggestions was the SAS survival handbook. A kettle cord with a plug on the end (UK 3 point plug) was one that stuck in my mind (but these days a phone charger might be the easiest thing to hand) and I remember being on a regularly hijacked bus route with my can of deodorant ready to be sprayed in someone's face.

Do you have anything really worth defending in a robbery? (violent attackers a different matter).

Comment by leggi on Pulse Oximetry & the Oxygen–Haemoglobin Dissociation Curve · 2020-03-23T06:29:20.507Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

get a pulse oximeter I think is the original comment.

Included on the justified advice thread.

A discussion on the what to do when infected thread was the prompt yesterday, (I'm not skilled enough to be able to link to the comment directly).

Comment by leggi on Pulse Oximetry & the Oxygen–Haemoglobin Dissociation Curve · 2020-03-23T06:25:36.578Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

posted a comment instead of reply. please delete

Comment by leggi on What should we do once infected with COVID-19? · 2020-03-22T07:44:31.229Z · score: 3 (2 votes) · LW · GW

It's a bit of a peeve of mine this down voting without explanation, but I'm getting used to it! I up-voted yesterday :)

blood oxygen - Hb/O2 dissociation curve.

Edited to add: It probably wouldn't bother me so much if it wasn't giving out negative "karma" - that's not something I'd dole out to anyone. Or if it didn't just take one vote (not everyone here is always as rational as they'd like to think) to remove comments from general view.

Comment by leggi on Coronavirus: Justified Practical Advice Thread · 2020-03-22T07:40:59.513Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

Gargling with salt water is a traditional method of treating sore throat/tonsillitis/swollen sub-mandibular lymph nodes.

I'm getting a little obsessed with garlic so I'd gargle with a garlic solution after the salt...

Comment by leggi on Coronavirus Justified Practical Advice Summary · 2020-03-22T07:26:32.902Z · score: 4 (3 votes) · LW · GW

I'm not sure this has been mentioned so, if you've got a thermometer ...

Get to know your normal temperature.

Take it when you get up, middle of the day and before bed. (clean with alcohol after each use) Nice chance to make a graph.

There's daily fluctuations in temperatures and method of taking it influences the readings so stay consistent. (rectal most accurate method but might be the least popular site - especially if sharing equipment!)

My normal sublingual temperature is 36.6 C

If you know what's normal for you then you'll know if it's increased.

Comment by leggi on Coronavirus Justified Practical Advice Summary · 2020-03-22T07:20:48.928Z · score: 3 (2 votes) · LW · GW

Having been in isolation for the last 10 days with a possible covid19 case (gut says no, head says hope so because we're past the worst).

I felt a bit rough yesterday.

Temperature 36.6 C which is normal sublingual (under the tongue) reading for our thermometer.

I crushed some garlic (oh 1st world problems not being able to find the inner bit of the garlic press).

Whilst giving it 10 minutes to brew I decided digital application to the nasal mucosa might be an efficient way to use the juice, targeted application a primary infection site.

(yes - I stuck my finger in the juice and then up my nose. Different finger for each nostril, gotta maintain some standards!)

Comment by leggi on What should we do once infected with COVID-19? · 2020-03-21T16:43:49.885Z · score: 2 (2 votes) · LW · GW
mostly studies of different types of rehydration therapies, always in children, and most for diarrhea induced imbalances rather than fever.

Any electrolyte losses due to having a fever for a few hours/days is not clinically significant which is why you can't find relevant studies. The body is capable of coping with a bout of pyrexia.


Plain water is usually sufficient to maintain hydration during a a fever + a little salt if sweating a lot. (I have said this before but it was voted down out of view - too simple and practical?).

Taking electrolytes (within recommended dosage) isn't going to hurt but it is not necessary for a fever.

Comment by leggi on Preprint says R0=~5 (!) / infection fatality ratio=~0.1%. Thoughts? · 2020-03-21T15:17:08.796Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

You're right re the "ground glass", it's describing what the lung looks like on imaging and is very non-specific. (Many etiologies and a long list of differential diagnoses).

A good article re ground-glass opacification and what might have caused it.

Comment by leggi on March Coronavirus Open Thread · 2020-03-20T08:15:46.463Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

Tracheal intubation in the ICU: Life saving or life threatening?

Comment by leggi on March Coronavirus Open Thread · 2020-03-20T08:05:48.780Z · score: 3 (2 votes) · LW · GW

There's a big difference between the process of intubation and maintaining a patient once intubated.

Someone with no prior knowledge of anatomy and physiology intubating patients (even after intense training) would increase the risks to patients. A mistake could be fatal. Time is a crucial factor - less than 4 minutes to correct an issue (brain needing oxygen).

Sedation/paralytic drugs need to be given. Dangerous in themselves. (an old saying re intravenous anaesthetics - dead easy, easily dead)

Adequate supervision/ back-up would be essential.

Aptitude of the trainee would also be very important. No room for getting stressed. 1st rule emergency medicine - breathe.

Better for the more experienced to intubate and then training people on ventilator management / how to squeeze a bag at the right pressure and timing (when ventilators aren't available).

Comment by leggi on Should we build thermometer substitutes? · 2020-03-20T07:37:16.586Z · score: 2 (2 votes) · LW · GW

Sorry to be picky but words are important:

Anything that measures a temperature is a thermo-meter.

Comment by leggi on Coronavirus Justified Practical Advice Summary · 2020-03-20T07:29:27.500Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

I did not know this.

Have you any links to more info?

Comment by leggi on LessWrong Coronavirus Agenda · 2020-03-20T07:27:10.330Z · score: 5 (4 votes) · LW · GW

Same virus family. Different pathogenesis and shouldn't be directly compared but more for information:

There are vaccines for coronavirus for dogs and cats. They are not commonly used for multiple reasons.

The main species that get vaccinated are cattle.

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an important livestock pathogen with a high prevalence worldwide. The virus causes respiratory disease and diarrhea in calves and winter dysentery in adult cattle.

Bovine coronavirus disease info.

Vaccine methods:

  • pregnant cows (to create antibodies to pass immunity to calves via colostrum) info on a product available. (multi-virus vaccine)
  • intranasal (IN) vaccination of calves with a modified live BCoV

(It's been years since I've worked with cattle but don't think the situation has changed)

Comment by leggi on March Coronavirus Open Thread · 2020-03-19T06:50:17.611Z · score: 4 (4 votes) · LW · GW

For intubation:

  • The patient is usually sedated/unconscious. (drugs need to be administered)
  • correct insertion of endotracheal tube ( endo ~ inside trachea = windpipe)

The first hard part is getting the tube past the vocal cords in the larynx. This requires the correct positioning of the patient to be able to see the vocal cords. (fibreoptic scope sometimes necessary) and to align structures for easier insertion.

Laryngospasm where the vocal cords come together to block the airway is a major concern. (the vocal cords coming together is a normal part of swallowing to prevent things going into the airways and contacting the cords will induce a spasm.) This can be reduced by using a local anaesthetic spray on the cords - essential if the patient is conscious (a rare situation).

Correct placement of the endotracheal tube is critical. It must be within the trachea, above the carina (where the trachea splits into the main bronchi and definitely not into a lung). If the tube goes into a bronchus it means one lung gets air, the other doesn't. A bad intubation is worse than no intubation.

For ventilation:

  • Fancy equipment


  • Someone squeezing a ventilation bag. (+ oxygen supplementation)

But ultimately, nurses/EMTs/medical students can be trained to do all this in a few days. If someone's competent and confident and has adequate back-up in-case of issues.

Comment by leggi on Coronavirus Justified Practical Advice Summary · 2020-03-19T06:05:23.080Z · score: 5 (3 votes) · LW · GW

I am trying to keep my wording simple - not managed it here so thanks for asking.

pyrexia = fever.

pyro ~ heat, fire (from both Latin and Greek) pyromaniac a more familiar word?

so anti-pyretic is something "against-fever" i.e. treats a fever/reduces temperature.

I would not take anything to reduce my temperature and I would recommend the same to friends and family, so yes I suggest avoiding paracetamol too.

Personal note - I eat a clove of raw garlic if I think I've picked something up. Giving it a really good crunch between the teeth to release the juices. Not pleasant (even to a garlic lover, and a little easier to take wrapped in bread) but great for keeping people away for a few hours....

Garlic has been shown to have anti-viral properties, no idea if it has any affect on the coronavirus but unless there's a reason not to take it, it's worth a shot. (I wouldn't bother with garlic tablets - just fresh)

Comment by leggi on Spiracular's Shortform Feed · 2020-03-18T07:16:03.376Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW
Other coronaviruses, ex: FIP

I know FIP as feline infectious peritonitis

Is that what you are referring to?

Comment by leggi on Coronavirus Justified Practical Advice Summary · 2020-03-18T07:01:08.186Z · score: 9 (5 votes) · LW · GW

paracetamol a.k.a. acetaminophen appears the safest thing to take but if you have a high temperature I would avoid any anti-pyretic medications.

A fever is a good thing - it's making the body inhospitable for viruses when they start invading.

Suppressing this immune response at the early infection "fever stage" potentially allows the virus to get hold.

Ride it out, help your body by curling up in a blanket.

Stay hydrated and let your body's defences work.

Comment by leggi on How dangerous is it to test a vaccine without animal trials? · 2020-03-16T17:57:44.670Z · score: 4 (3 votes) · LW · GW

US volunteers to test first vaccine according to this article BBC

Dr John Tregoning, an expert in infectious diseases at Imperial College London, UK, said: "This vaccine uses pre-existing technology.
"It's been made to a very high standard, using things that we know are safe to use in people and those taking part in the trial will be very closely monitored.
"Yes, this is very fast - but it is a race against the virus, not against each other as scientists, and it's being done for the benefit of humanity."
Comment by leggi on Coronavirus: Justified Practical Advice Thread · 2020-03-16T15:19:45.965Z · score: -1 (2 votes) · LW · GW

Main electrolytes : Sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and magnesium.

Low electrolyte conditions if you want to check specifics: hyponatremia (sodium), hypochloremia (choloride), hypokalemia (potassium), hypocalcemia (calcium), hypophosphatamia (phosphate), hypomagnesemia (magnesium).

Electrolyte imbalances are more of a concern with severe vomiting/diarrhoea conditions rather than with running a fever. (unless severe and prolonged sweating or underlying conditions).

Fever = increased sweating.

Sweat = water and mainly sodium and chloride.

  • An easy check is to taste your sweat. If it's salty, you're OK.
  • Monitor the colour of your urine - pale yellow (straw coloured) suggests adequate hydration.

Hydration is important to maintain. Plain water is usually sufficient. Little and often. (Too much water can also be dangerous i.e. don't be drinking a litre at a time).

0.9% NaCl solution is isotonic ("normal saline " I.V fluids)

Standard practice for homemade "electrolyte solution" is a pinch of table salt and a level teaspoon of sugar in a pint of water.

Comment by leggi on How to have a happy quarantine · 2020-03-15T07:15:04.653Z · score: 3 (2 votes) · LW · GW

If anyone's looking for something to do, you could always try learning a little human anatomy:

5 main muscles made easy.

A minute a muscle so say 5 minutes a day. Do you have the time to spare?

Go on - connect body and mind!

Comment by leggi on Open & Welcome Thread - March 2020 · 2020-03-10T04:32:45.277Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

I like the divider dots that have appeared in the edit options

Comment by leggi on You've Been Exposed to COVID-19: What Do You Wish You Knew? · 2020-03-10T04:30:12.388Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

It depends on:

  • what the object is/its surface material.
  • how effective the disinfectant used is.
  • how thorough the wiping is done. All clean, all disinfected, all good.
  • (how the now potentially infected wipe is handled).

If you're looking for specifics then try researching "fomites" (objects that could carry infections) and how to clean what can be potentially contaminated.

Comment by leggi on How can we extrapolate the true prevalence of a disease, given available information? · 2020-03-10T03:26:25.919Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

How many epidemiologists are here?

It's a difficult subject.

Answering this question (to a level I'd be happy with) would take days of work.

But there's plenty of information out there on how epidemiology works (and where it doesn't).

Comment by leggi on How effective are tulpas? · 2020-03-10T03:18:48.564Z · score: 4 (6 votes) · LW · GW

I read this and I think eeek...

I don't even know where to start, but months of work to create an alter-ego "imaginary friend" that has its own "free-will" ?? !!!

We all hear voices, talk to ourselves, have inner dialogues, whatever ...

Learning to listen to the versions of yourself is a good thing, but I believe that comes more from a state of relaxation and acceptance rather than forcing the creation of a tulpa.

Comment by leggi on Subjective implication decision theory in critical agentialism · 2020-03-09T03:43:08.354Z · score: 3 (2 votes) · LW · GW

I'm new to the whole decision theory thing (I'm a definite one-boxer with Newcomb's) - I've enjoyed this post and the discussions in comments.

It'll take me a while to process - but please let the discussions continue!

Comment by leggi on Effectiveness of Fever-Screening Will Decline · 2020-03-09T03:37:40.004Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW
Evading fever screening, on the other hand, involves greater selective pressure and so may happen on a faster time scale, possibly fast enough to significantly influence the shape of the pandemic this year.

Fever is part of the immune response, it creates a less hospitable environment for pathogens when the body is at a temperature above normal (actually a good thing even it it makes you feel shit). Pathogens have always had to deal with it.

How effective is fever-screening now?

Do you have any data:

  • number of cases found by screening?
  • % of population screened, for how long and how often?

(I've had a quick look at some of the figures you linked to, they seem hospital based so I'm not sure how they connect to screening).

What are the effects of screening?

I would think people who feel ill are more likely to stay home if they think they might get 'caught' by a screener. i.e. The presence of screening is more likely to change the behaviour of the infected than the evolution of the virus.

Attitudes to illness have shifted - If I've learned anything from adverts from cold and flu remedies is that you can take one and just get back to work with a smile, never mind if you're contagious or not ....

Drug resistance evolves slowly

Can you justify that statement? It feels like words used to justify your thinking but is it grounded in fact? What drugs, pathogens, mechanisms of resistance are you talking about? So many possibilities..

Comment by leggi on When are immunostimulants/immunosuppressants likely to be helpful for COVID-19? · 2020-03-06T15:30:09.434Z · score: 1 (3 votes) · LW · GW

From the WHO report you linked to (page 36):

There are distinct patterns of intra-familial transmission of COVID-19. It is unclear whether or not there are host factors, including genetic factors, that influence susceptibility or disease course

Something I find interesting to point out.

Comment by leggi on Open & Welcome Thread - February 2020 · 2020-03-06T13:06:39.635Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

For cases receiving antibiotics I would want to distinguish between prophylactic and therapeutic prescribing.

Are they being given "just in case" or are they being used to treat a bacterial infection (confirmed by testing)?

The general health/disease history and current medications of the patients most affected should also be considered when looking at the stats.

Comment by leggi on For viruses, is presenting with fatigue correlated with causing chronic fatigue? · 2020-03-05T03:03:43.439Z · score: 0 (4 votes) · LW · GW

Not a "good answer" as requested (no numbers and edited for clarification) but it's not a good question.

  • most viruses cause fatigue during acute infection.

Anorexia, pyrexia, lethargy (fatigue) - 3 clinical signs very common to many infectious diseases.

"Fatigue" as a symptom is so common it is unlikely to be recorded or always ticked.

Who doesn't feel tired, lethargic, fatigued when they are ill?

Presenting with fatigue:

guessitmate 90-100% Depending on the wording of questioning regarding energy levels.

Where's the clinical distinction between feeling tired and feeling fatigued?

Comment by leggi on Coronavirus: Justified Practical Advice Thread · 2020-03-03T07:28:34.537Z · score: 5 (3 votes) · LW · GW

Hospital beds per 1000 people - some world data

Comment by leggi on Operationalizing Newcomb's Problem · 2020-02-25T05:08:35.535Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

Thank you for the reply - I appreciate the time taken.

I'll have more of a think ....

Comment by leggi on Making Sense of Coronavirus Stats · 2020-02-21T05:06:42.573Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

Now that you have a definition for mortality rate - time for an update in your post?

I presume more people will be reading so clarification would be valuable.

Comment by leggi on If giving unsolicited feedback was a social norm, what feedback would you often give? · 2020-02-21T05:01:27.310Z · score: 1 (1 votes) · LW · GW

:) liquid/paste/pulp ... mechanically processing your food with your teeth to increase its surface area is a good thing. Chewing increases the production of saliva so more enzymes available and more time for them to mix with the food. Although I dislike the expression, it's a "no-brainer" to me hence the confidence.

I was expecting more of a push-back on food that's grown not manufactured. A visceral belief but I'd struggle to form a rational argument - there's a lack of scientific proof for something so hard to test. Nature's hard to beat.