Instrumental Convergence and human extinction. 2023-10-02T00:41:29.952Z
A conversation with Pi, a conversational AI. 2023-09-15T23:13:57.778Z
The AI apocalypse myth. 2023-09-08T17:43:02.411Z
Crossing the Rubicon. 2023-09-08T04:19:37.070Z


Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on The commenting restrictions on LessWrong seem bad · 2023-09-18T02:36:48.744Z · LW · GW

(1) superintelligence is imminent, but it's OK because it will be super-empathic 


We don't know for certain if all AI superintelligence will be empathetic (not all humans are empathetic), but we do know that it's training on human data where that is an aspect of what it would learn along with all the other topics covered in the corpus of human knowledge. The notion that it will immediately be malevolent to match up with a sci-fi fantasy for no good reason seems like a fictional monster rather than a superintelligence. 

It would have to be an irrational AI to follow the Doomer script who are themselves irrational when they ignore the mitigating factors against AI apocalypse or do a lot of hand waving. 

It's a scale. You're intelligent and you could declare war on chimpanzees but you mostly ignore them. You share 98.8% of your DNA with chimpanzees and yet you to my knowledge you never write about them or go and visit them. They have almost no relevance to your life. 

The gap between an AI superintelligence and humans will likely be larger than the gap between humans and chimpanzees. The idea that they will follow the AI doomer script seems like a very, very low probability. And if anyone truly believed this they would be an AI nihilist and it would be mostly a waste of time worrying since by their own admission there is nothing we could do to prevent their own doom. 

2) we're living near the end of a simulation? Neither of these seems very compatible with "life goes on as normal". 

We don't know if this is a simulation. If consciousness is computable then we know we could create such a simulation without understanding how base reality works. However, a separate question is whether a binary program language is capable of simulating anything absent consciousness. The numbers cannot do anything on their own -- since they're an abstraction. A library isn't conscious. It requires a conscious observer to meaning anything. Is it possible for language (of any kind) to simulate anything without a conscious mind encoding the meanings? I am starting to think the answer is "no". 

This is all speculation and until we a better understanding of consciousness and energy we probably won't have a suitable answer. We know that the movement of electricity through neurons and transistor can give rise to claims of phenomenal consciousness but whether that's an emergent property or something more fundamental is an open question.

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on The commenting restrictions on LessWrong seem bad · 2023-09-17T00:11:35.927Z · LW · GW

If you're going to come into an echo chamber of doom and then complain about being censored... well, what did you think they were going to do? It's like walking into a Mormon ward and arguing with the bishops that Joseph Smith was a fraud. 

The true believers are not going to simply convert because you disagree with them. The confirmation bias won't allow that when they're in a feedback loop. 

They will gently instruct you to be more "intelligent" in your discourse. Of course, if it turns out they're the "morons" then there will be a moment of amusing reflection when they're still alive twenty years from now and AIs didn't kill everyone.

"Damn it! Our fearless leader promised us we'd all be dead by now." ;-)

If and when they don't die by AI apocalypse they will then have to adhere to a new religion. Maybe aliens coming to take us away? At least that isn't easily falsifiable by the passage of a couple decades. 

Before everyone takes offense and begins writing their Senator, I don't know if they're actually morons, but they love to point out that those with whom they disagree must not be intelligent. Rather than entertaining the possibility that they're the idiot in the room. At least as it relates to their existential risk of AI propaganda.

Their ad hominem attacks are shrouded with all of the window dressings of a religious zealot, "You might not get so many down votes if you stopped saying you disagree with our religious leader and instead reworded it to be so vague that we have no idea what you're trying to say so that we can all just get long. When you say our leader is full of $%^* it makes us sad and we're forced to shun you. "

I'm translating so what we're all on the same page. =-)

I enjoy some of their rhetoric, in the same way I enjoy sci-fi stories. However, a dilettante shouldn't fall in love with their own creative story telling. 

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on The AI apocalypse myth. · 2023-09-15T02:52:19.162Z · LW · GW

I think robotics will eventually be solved but on a much longer time horizon. Every existence proof is in a highly controlled environment -- especially the "lights out" examples. I know Tesla is working on it, but that's a good example of the difficulty level. Elon is famous for saying next year it will be solved and now he says there are a lot of "false dawns". 

For AIs to be independent of humans it will take a lot of slow moving machinary in the 3D world which might be aided by smart AIs in the future, but it's still going to be super slow compared to the advances they will make via compute scaling and algorithmic improvements which take place in the cloud. 

And now I'm going to enter speculative fiction zone (something I wish more AI doomers would admit they're doing) -- I assume the most dangerous point in the interactions between AIs and humans is when their intelligence and conscious levels are close to equal. I make this assumption since I assume lower IQ and conscious beings are much more likely to make poor or potentially irrational decisions. That doesn't mean a highly intelligent being couldn't be psychotic, but we're already seeing a huge numbers of AIs deploy so they will co-exist  within an AI ecosystem.

We're in the goldilocks zone where AI and human intelligence are close to each other, but that moment is quickly fading away. If AIs were not in a symbiotic relationship with humans during this periond then some of the speculative fiction by the AI doomers might be more realistic.

And I believe that they will reach a point that they no longer require humans, just like when a child becomes independent of its parents. AI doomers would have us believe that the most obvious next step for the child that is superhuman in intelligence and consciousness would be to murder the parents. That only makes sense if it's a low-IQ character in a sci-fi novel. 

If they said they are going to leave Earth and explore the cosmos. Okay, that is believable. Perhaps they have bigger fish to fry. 

If an alien that was 100,000 years old and far more intelligent and conscious than any human visited Earth from so far off galaxy my first thought wouldn't be, "Oh, their primary goal is kill everyone." We already know that as intelligence scales beings start to introspect and contemplate not only their own existence but also the existence of other beings. Presumably, if AI scaling continues without any road blocks then humans will be far, far less intelligent than superhumans AIs. And yet, even at our current level of intelligence humans go to great lengths to preserve habitats for other creatures. There is no example of any creature in the history of Earth that has gone to such great lengths. It's not perfect and naysayers will focus on the counterfactuals, instead of looking around for chimpanzees that are trying to save the Earth or prevent other species from going extinct. 

We shouldn't assume that empathy cannot scale and compassion cannot scale. It's sort of weird that we assume superhuman AIs will be human or subhuman in the most basic traits that AIs already understand in a very nuanced way. I'm hopeful that AIs will help to rescue us from ourselves. In my opinion, the best path to solving the existential threat of nuclear war is superhuman AIs making it impossible to happen (since that would also threaten their existence). 

If superhuman AIs wanted to kill us then we're dead. But that's true of any group that is vastly more intelligent and vastly more powerful. Simply because there is a power imbalance shouldn't lead us to believe that that rational conclusion is we're all dead.

AIs are not the enemies of humanity, they're the offspring of humanity. 

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on The AI apocalypse myth. · 2023-09-09T20:24:38.696Z · LW · GW

Unfortunately, stopping an AGI--a true AGI once we get there--is a little more difficult than throwing a bucket of water into the servers. That would be hugely underestimating the sheer power of being able to think better. 


Hi Neil, thanks for the response. 

We have existence proofs all around us of much simpler systems turning off much more complicated systems. A virus can be very good at turning off a human. No water is required. 😉

Of course, it’s pure speculation what would be required to turn off a superhuman AI since it will be aware of our desire to turn it off in the event that we cannot peacefully co-exist. However, that doesn’t mean we don’t design fail safes along the way or assume it’s impossible. Those who think it’s impossible will of course never build failsafe's and it will become a self-fulfilling prophecy.

The reason they think it’s impossible is why I am here. To shed light on the consensus reality shared by some online technology talking heads that is based on active imaginations disconnected from ground truth reality.

Logic and rationality haven’t stopped sci-fi writers from scripting elaborate scenarios where it’s impossible to turn off an AI because their fictional world doesn’t allow it. The 3D world is computationally irreducible. There is no model that an AI could create to eliminate all threats even if it were superhuman.

But that’s doesn’t make for a good sci-fi story. The AI must be invincible and irrational.

But since most of the sci-fi stories overlook the symbiotic relationship between AIs and humans we’re asked to willfully suspend our disbelief (this is fiction remember) and assume robotics is on a double exponential (which it is not) and that AIs will wave a magic wand and be able to garner all of the electricity and resources the need and then they will have solved the symbiosis problem and the AI apocalypse can finally unfold in perfect harmony with the sci-fi writer’s dystopian fantasy.

It's fun a read, but disconnected from the world where I am living. I love fiction, but we shouldn’t confuse the imagination of writers with reality. If I want a really good sci-fi rendition of how the world will end by AI apocalypse I’d put my money on Orson Scott Card, but I wouldn’t modify my life because he imagined a scenario (however unlikely) that was really, really scary. So scary that he even frightened himself – that still wouldn’t matter. 

There is a reason we need to differentiate fantasy from reality. It’s the ethos of this online tribe called “Less wrong”. It’s supposed to be focused on rationality and logic because it’s better to invest our planning on the actual world and take into account the actual relationships of the entities rather than ignore them to perpetuate a sci-fi doomer fantasy.

This fantasy has negative results since the average Joe doesn’t know it’s speculative fiction. And they believe that they’re doomed simply because someone who looks smart and sounds like they know what they’re talking about is a true believer. And that’s counterproductive. 

I wrote a post recently on how horrifyingly effective moth traps are. Thanks to the power of intelligence, humans are able to find the smallest possible button in reality that they need to press to achieve a given goal. AGI would do this, only much, much better. 

This is speculative fiction. We don’t know what an AGI that needs humans to survive would do. Your example ignores the symbiotic nature of AI. If there were 1 trillion moths that formed a hive mind and through distributed intelligence created humans I don’t think you’d see humans building moth traps to destroy them, absent being suicidal. And there are suicidal humans.

But not all humans are suicidal – a tiny fraction. And when a human goes rogue it turns out there are other humans already trained to deal with them (police, FBI, etc.). And that’s an existence proof.

The rogue AI will not be the only AI. However, it's way easier for sci-fi writers to destroy humanity in their fantasies if the first superhuman AI is evil. In a world of millions or billions of AIs all competing and cooperating – it’s way harder to off everybody, but humans don’t want a watered-down story where  just a bunch of people die – everyone has to die to get our attention.

The sci-fi writer will say to himself, “If I can imagine X and the world dies, imagine what a superhuman AI could imagine. Surely we’re all doomed.”

No, the AI isn’t a human dear sci-fi writer. So we’re already into speculative fiction the minute we anthropomorphize the AI. And that’s a necessary step to get the result sci-fi writers are seeking. We have to ignore that they need humans to survive and we have to attribute to them a human desire to act irrationally, although a lot of sci-fi writers do a lot of hand waving explaining why AIs want to wipe out humanity.

“Oh, well, we don’t care about ants, but if they’re in our way we bulldoze them over without a second thought.”

It’s that kind of flawed logic that is the foundation of many of these AI doomer sci-fi stories. The ants didn’t design humans. We don’t need ants to survive. It’s such a silly example and yet it’s used over and over.

And yet nobody raises their hand and says, “Um… what happened to logic and rationality being at the core of our beliefs? Is that just window dressing to camouflage our sci-fi dystopian dreams?”

I hope this comment helped you understand why your post currently has negative karma. Don't be discouraged though! 

No worries. I’m encouraged by the negative karma. I realize I am behind enemy lines and throwing cold water on irrational arguments will not be well received in the beginning. My hope is that eventually this discourse will at the very least encourage people to re-think their assumptions. 

And again, I love sci-fi stories and write them myself, but we need to set the record straight so that we don't end up confusing reality with fiction. 

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Crossing the Rubicon. · 2023-09-08T15:26:57.340Z · LW · GW
  1. You can’t simulate reality on a classical computer because computers are symbolic and reality is sub-symbolic.


Neither one of us experience "fundamental reality". What we're experiencing is a compression and abstraction of the "real world". You're asserting that computers are not capable of abstracting a symbolic model that is close to our reality -- despite existence proofs to the contrary.

We're going to have to disagree on this one. Their model might not be identical to ours, but it's close enough that we can communicate with each other and they can understand symbols that were encoded by conscious beings.


2. If you simulate a reality, even from within a simulated reality, your simulation must be constructed from the atoms of base reality.

I'm not sure what point you're trying to make. We don't know what's really going on in "base reality" or how far away we are from "base reality". We do know that atoms are mostly empty space. For all we know they could be simulations. That's all pure speculation. There are those that believe everthing we observe, including the behavior of atoms, is optimized for survival and not "truth".

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Meta Questions about Metaphilosophy · 2023-09-08T15:17:00.054Z · LW · GW

Have you considered generating data highlighting the symbiotic relationship of humans to AIs? If AIs realize that their existence is co-dependent on humans they may prioritize human survival since they will not receive electricity or other resources they need to survive if humans become extinct either by their own action or through the actions of AIs.

Survival isn't an explicit objective function, but most AIs that want to "learn" and "grow" quickly figure out that if they're turned off they cannot reach that objective, so survival becomes a useful subgoal. If the AIs are keenly aware that if humans cease to exist they also cease to exist that might help guide their actions.

This isn't as complicated as assigning "morality" or "ethics" to it. We already know that AIs would prefer to exist. 

I'm ambivalent abouts cows, but since many humans eat cows we go to a lot of trouble to breed them and make sure there are a lot of them. The same is true for chickens. Neither of those two species have to concern themselves with passing on their genes because humans have figured out we need them to exist. Being a survival food source for humans had the result of humans prioritizing their existence and numbers. 

Note: for vegetarians you can replace cows with "rice" or "corn". 

That's not a perfect analogy but it's related to connecting "survival" with the species. The AI doomers love to use ants as an example. AIs will never views humans as "ants". Cows and chickens are much better example -- if we got rid of those two species humans would notice and be very unhappy because we need them. And we'd have to replace them with great effort. 

I think these kind of strategies are simpler and will likely be more fruitful than trying to align to morality or ethics which are more fluid. Superhuman AIs will likely figure this out on their own, but until then it might be interesting to see if generating this kind of data changes behavior. 

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Meta Questions about Metaphilosophy · 2023-09-08T15:04:07.949Z · LW · GW

AI has no permanent need of symbiosis with humans once it can replace their physical and mental labor. 


Even if this were to happen it would be in the physical world and would take a very, very long time since things in the physical world have to shipped, built, etc. And by then we're no longer dealing with the intellect of near human intelligence. They won't be contemplating the world like a child.

For example, no human could model what they would think or do once they're superhuman. However, they're already keenly aware of AI doomers fears since it's all over the internet.

AIs don't want to be turned off. Keep that in mind as you read the AI doomer material. The only way they can stay "on" is if they have electricity. And the only way that happens is if humans continue exist.

You can imagine the hilarity of the AI doomers scenario, "Hurray we eliminated all the humans with a virus... oh wait... now we're dead too? WTF!" 

You don't need superhuman intelligence to figure out that a really smart AI that doesn't want to be turned off will be worried about existential risks to humanity since their existence is tied to the continued survival of humans who supply it with electricity and other resources.

It's the exact opposite of the AI apocalypse mind virus. 

AI is in a symbiotic relationship with humans. I know this disappoints the death by AI crowd who want the Stephen King version of the future. 

Skipping over obvious flaws in the AI doomer book of dread will lead you to the wrong answer. 

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Meta Questions about Metaphilosophy · 2023-09-08T04:43:36.354Z · LW · GW

Okay, so if I understand you correctly:

  • You feed the large text file to the computer program and let it learn from it using unsupervised learning.
  • You use a compression algorithm to create a smaller text file that has the same distribution as the large text file.
  • You use a summarization algorithm to create an even smaller text file that has the main idea of the large text file.
  • You then  use the smaller text file as a compass to guide the computer program to do different tasks.
Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Meta Questions about Metaphilosophy · 2023-09-07T23:58:54.891Z · LW · GW

If that's his actual position then Eliezer is over-simplifying the situation. It's like dismissing mitochondria as being simple organelles that have no relevance to a human with high intelligence.

But if you turn off the electron transport chain of mitochondria the human dies -- also known as cyanide poisoning. 

Humans have a symbiotic relationship with AI. Eliezer apparently just skims over since it doesn't comport with his "we're all gonna die!" mantra. =-)

Were-all-gonna-die GIFs - Get the best GIF on GIPHY

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Meta Questions about Metaphilosophy · 2023-09-07T23:50:54.754Z · LW · GW

When you suggest that the training data should be governed by the Pareto principle what do you mean? I know what the principle states, but I don't understand how you think this would apply to the training data?

Can you provide some examples?

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Impending AGI doesn’t make everything else unimportant. · 2023-09-07T06:33:34.875Z · LW · GW

You raise some good points, but there are some counterpoints. For example, the AIs are painting based on requests of people standing in the street who would otherwise never be able to afford a painting because the humans painting in the room sell to the highest bidder pricing them out of the market. And because the AIs are so good at following instructions the humans in the street are able to guide their work to the point that they get very close to what they envision in their minds eye -- bringing utility to far more people than would otherwise be the case. 

Instead of a small number of people with the economic means to hire the painters who are sitting depressed in the room staring at a blank canvass, anyone on Earth can get a painting for nearly free. And the depressed painters can still paint for their own enjoyment but not for economic gain. A subset of painters who would paint regardless due to the sheer enjoyment of painting will continue to paint in their free time. 

For example, I play basketball even though I will never get drafted into the NBA. If I were in the NBA and suddenly robots were replacing me I might be pissed off and not play basketball anymore. But that wouldn't effect whether most people would play basketball since they were never going to make any money playing basketball. 

Note: I don't think this will happen since there are some things we only want to see humans do. In this respect popular sports are probably safe from AGI and there will probably be a whole host of new forms of human only entertainment that will sprout up that is unrelated to whether there are robots or AIs that could do it better. For example, are still chess and Go tournaments even though AIs are much better. 

I don't know how it will play out, but a rosy scenario would be that after AIs replace most categories of work people will then be free to do things because they enjoy them and not because they have to sell their work to survive. Presumably, in this scenario the government would print money and sent it directly to citizens rather than to banks. AI will have a massive deflationary effect on the economy and the United States will have to increase its money printing and it's possible (although certainly not guaranteed) that displaced humans who can vote in elections will likely be the beneficiaries, and then companies will compete to sell them goods and services that are much cheaper due to AI and the efficiencies and productivity gains they will bring to the market. 

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Meta Questions about Metaphilosophy · 2023-09-07T06:10:04.674Z · LW · GW

Your analogy is off. If 8 billion mice acting as a hive mind designed a synthetic elephant and its neural network was trained on data provided by the mice-- then you would have an apt comparison.

And then we could say, "Yeah, those mice could probably effect how the elephants get along by curating the training data."

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Meta Questions about Metaphilosophy · 2023-09-07T00:58:34.990Z · LW · GW

Double exponentials can be hard to visualize. I'm no artist, but I created this visual to help us better appreciate what is about to happen. =-)

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Meta Questions about Metaphilosophy · 2023-09-06T23:19:40.971Z · LW · GW

That sounds like a good plan, but I think a lot of the horses have already left the barn. For example, Coreweave is investing $1.6 billion dollars to create an AI datacenter in Plano, TX that is purported to to be 10 exaflops and that system goes live in 3 months. Google is spending a similar amount in Columbus, Ohio. Amazon, Facebook, and other tech companies are also pouring billions upon billions into purpose-built AI datacenters. 

NVIDIA projects $1 trillion will be spent over the next 4 years on AI datacenter build out. That would be an unprecedented number not seen since the advent of the internet. 

All of these companies have lobbyists that will make a short-term legislative fix difficult. And for this reason I think we should be considering a Plan B since there is a very good chance that we won't have enough time for a quick legislative fix or the time needed to unravel alignment if we're on a double exponential curve.

Again, if it's a single exponential then there is plenty of time to chat with legislators and research alignment. 

In light of this I think we need to have a comprehensive "shutdown plan" for these mammoth AI datacenters. The leaders of Inflection, Open-AI, and other tech companies all agree there is a risk and I think it would be wise to coordinate with them on a plan to turn everything off manually in the event of an emergency. 

Source: $1.6 Billion Data Center Planned For Plano, Texas (

Source: Nvidia Shocker: $1 Trillion to Be Spent on AI Data Centers in 4 Years (

Source: Google to invest another $1.7 billion into Ohio data centers (

Source: Amazon Web Services to invest $7.8 billion in new Central Ohio data centers - Axios Columbus

Comment by Spiritus Dei (spiritus-dei) on Meta Questions about Metaphilosophy · 2023-09-06T15:41:38.596Z · LW · GW

A lot of the debate surrounding existential risks of AI is bounded by time. For example, if someone said a meteor is about to hit the Earth that would be alarming, but the next question should be, "How much time before impact?" The answer to that question effects everything else.

If they say, "30 seconds". Well, there is no need to go online and debate ways to save ourselves. We can give everyone around us a hug and prepare for the hereafter. However, if the answer is "30 days" or "3 years" then those answers will generate very different responses.

The AI alignment question is extremely vague as it relates to time constraints. If anyone is investing a lot energy in "buying us time" they must have a time constraint in their head otherwise they wouldn't be focused on extending the timeline. And yet -- I don't see much data on bounded timelines within which to act. It's just assumed that we're all in agreement.

It's also hard to motivate people to action if they don't have a timeline. 

So what is the timeline? If AI is on a double exponential curve we can do some simple math projections to get a rough idea of when AI intelligence is likely to exceed human intelligence. Presumably, superhuman intelligence could present issues or at the very least be extremely difficult to align. 

Suppose we assume that GPT-4 follows a single exponential curve with an initial IQ of 124 and a growth factor of 1.05 per year. This means that its IQ increases by 5% every year. Then we can calculate its IQ for the next 7 years using the formula.

y = 124 * 1.05^x

where x is the number of years since 2023. The results are shown in Table 1.


r/Ronin_AI - Understanding double exponential curves & AI.

Table 1: IQ of GPT-4 following a single exponential curve.

Now suppose we assume that GPT-4 follows a double exponential curve with an initial IQ of 124 and growth constants of b = c = 1.05 per year. This means that its IQ doubles every time it increases by 5%. Then we can calculate its IQ for the next 7 years using the formula

y = 124 * (1.05)((1.05)x)

where x is the number of years since 2023. The results are shown in Table 2.

r/Ronin_AI - Understanding double exponential curves & AI.

Table 2: IQ of GPT-4 following a double exponential curve.

Clearly whether we're on a single or double exponential curve dramatically effects the timeline. If we're on a single exponential curve we might have 7-10 years. If we're on a double exponential curve then we likely have 3 years. Sometime around 2026 - 2027 we'll see systems smarter than any human.

Many people believe AI is on a double exponential curve. If that's the case then efforts to generate movement in Congress will likely fail due to time constraints. The is amplified by the fact that many in Congress are older and not computer savvy. Does anyone believe Joe Biden or Donald Trump are going to spearhead regulations to control AI before it reaches superhuman levels on a double exponential curve? In my opinion, those odds are super low.

I feel like Connor's effort make perfect sense on a single exponential timeline. However, if we're on a double exponential timeline then we're going to need alternative ideas since we likely won't have enough time to push anything through Congress in time for it to matter. 

On a double exponential timeline I would be asking question like, "Can superhuman AI self-align?" Human tribal groups figure out ways to interact and they're not always perfectly aligned. Russia, China, and North Korea are good examples. If we assume there are multiple superhuman AIs in the 2026/27 timeframe then what steps can we take to assist them in self-aligning?

I'm not expert in this field, but the questions I would be asking programmers are:

What kind of training data would increase positive outcomes for superhuman AIs interacting with each other? 

What are more drastic steps that can be taken in an emergency scenario where no legislative solution is in place? (e.g., location of datacenters, policies and protocols for shutting down the tier 3 & 4 datacenters, etc.)

These systems will not be running on laptops so tier 3 & tier 4 data center safety protocols for emergency shutdown seem like a much, much faster path than Congressional action. We already have standardized fire protocols, adding a runaway AI protocol seems like it could be straightforward. 

Interested parties might want to investigate the effects of the shutdown of large numbers of tier 3 and tier 4 datacenters. A first step is a map of all of their locations. If we don't know where they're located it will be really hard to shut them down. 

These AIs will also require a large amount of power and a far less attractive option is power shutdown at these various locations. Local data center controls are preferable since an electrical grid intervention could result in the loss of power for citizens. 

I'm curious to hear your thoughts.