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LessWrong Darmstadt Meetup 2019-11-07T17:55:52.355Z
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Comment by MaxRa on (Brainstem, Neocortex) ≠ (Base Motivations, Honorable Motivations) · 2021-07-28T15:53:07.775Z · LW · GW

Thanks for elaborating!

I guess I would say, any given desire has some range of how strong it can be in different situations, and if you tell me that the very strongest possible air-hunger-related desire is stronger than the very strongest possible social-instinct-related desire, I would say "OK sure, that's plausible." But it doesn't seem particularly relevant to me. The relevant thing to me is how strong the desires are at the particular time that you're making a decision or thinking a thought.

I think that almost captures what I was thinking, only that I expect the average intensity within these ranges to differ, e.g. for some individuals the desire for social interaction is usually very strong or for others rather weak (which I expect you to agree with). And this should explain which desires more often supply the default plan and for which additional "secondary" desires the neocortex has to work for to find an overall better compromise.

For example, you come home and your body feels tired and the desire that is strongest at this moment is the desire for rest, and the plan that suits this desire most is lying in bed and watching TV. But then another desire for feeling productive pushes for more plan suggestions and the neocortex comes up with lying on the coach and reading a book. And then the desire for being social pushes a bit and the revised plan is for reading the book your mum got you as a present.

Comment by MaxRa on (Brainstem, Neocortex) ≠ (Base Motivations, Honorable Motivations) · 2021-07-28T13:19:03.303Z · LW · GW

It would be weird for two desires to have a strict hierarchical relationship.

I agree, I didn't mean to imply a strict hierarchical relationship, and I think you don't need a strict relationship to explain at least some part of the asymmetry. You just would need less honorable desires on average having more power over the default, e.g. 

  • taking care of hunger, 
  • thirst, 
  • breath, 
  • looking at aesthetically pleasing things,
  • remove discomforts 

versus

  • taking care of long-term health
  • clean surrounding
  • expressing gratitude

And then we can try to optimize the default by searching for good compromises or something like that, which more often involve more honorable desires, like self-actualization, social relationships, or something like that. (I expect all of this to vary across individuals and probably also cultures).

there's a tradeoff between satisfying competing desires

I agree it depends on the current state, e.g. of course if your satiated you won't care much about food. But, similar to your example, could you make somebody stab their friend by starving them in their need for showing gratitude, or the desire for having fun? I suspect not. But could you do it by starving them in their need of breathing oxygen, or making them super-duper-depesperately thirsty? I (also) suspect more often yes. That seems to imply some more general weighing? 

> I guess 'wanting to smoke' should rather be thought of as a strategy to quench the discomfortful craving than a desire?

I'm not sure exactly what you mean ...

What you replied makes sense to me, thanks. 

Comment by MaxRa on (Brainstem, Neocortex) ≠ (Base Motivations, Honorable Motivations) · 2021-07-26T15:18:20.920Z · LW · GW

Very interesting. This reminded me of Keith Stanovich's idea of the master rationality motive, which he defines as a desire to integrate higher-order preferences with first-order preferences. He gives an example of wanting to smoke and not wanting to want to smoke, which sounds like you would consider this as two conflicting preferences, health vs. the short-term reward from smoking. His idea how these conflicts are resolved are to have a "decoupled" simulation in which we can simulate adapting our first-order desires (I guess 'wanting to smoke' should rather be thought of as a strategy to quench the discomfortful craving than a desire?) and finding better solutions.

The master rationality motive seems to aim at something slightly different, though, e.g. given the questionnaire items Stanovich envisions to measure it, for example

  • I am only confident of decisions that are made after careful analysis of all available information.
  • I don’t feel I have to have reasons for what I do. (R)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220041090_Higher-order_preferences_and_the_Master_Rationality_Motive

Regarding the asymmetry, I have the intuition that the asymmetry of honorability comes through a different weighing of desires, e.g. you'd expect some things to be more important for our survival and reproduction, e.g. food, sex, not freezing, avoiding danger > honesty, caring for non-kin, right? 

Comment by MaxRa on Going Out With Dignity · 2021-07-13T10:44:37.398Z · LW · GW

But don't you share the impression that with increased wealth humans generally care more about the suffering of others? The story I tell myself is that humans have many basic needs (e.g. food, safety, housing) that historically conflicted with 'higher' desires like self-expression, helping others or improving the world. And with increased wealth, humans relatively universally become more caring. Or maybe more cynically, with increased wealth we can and do invest more resources into signalling that we are caring good reasonable people, i.e. the kinds of people others will more likely choose as friends/mates/colleagues.

This makes me optimistic about a future in which humans still shape the world. Would be grateful to have some holes poked into this. Holes that spontaneously come to mind:

  • influence-seeking people are more likely uncaring and/or psychpathic
  • the signals that humans use for determining who is a caring good person are not strongly correlated with actually caring about reducing suffering in the world
Comment by MaxRa on What will 2040 probably look like assuming no singularity? · 2021-05-17T14:28:10.619Z · LW · GW

Very cool prompt and list. Does anybody have predictions on the level of international conflict about AI topics and the level of "freaking out about AI" in 2040, given the AI improvements that Daniel is sketching out?

Comment by MaxRa on What Multipolar Failure Looks Like, and Robust Agent-Agnostic Processes (RAAPs) · 2021-04-28T18:26:27.906Z · LW · GW

Good point relating it to markets. I think I don't understand Acemoglu and Robinson's perspective well enough here, as the relationship between state, society and markets is the biggest questionmark I left the book with. I think A&R don't necessarily only mean individual liberty when talking about power of society, but the general influence of everything that falls in the "civil society" cluster.

Comment by MaxRa on What Multipolar Failure Looks Like, and Robust Agent-Agnostic Processes (RAAPs) · 2021-04-22T19:32:24.155Z · LW · GW

I was reminded of the central metaphor of Acemoglu and Robinson's "The Narrow Corridor" as a RAAP candidate:

  • civil society wants to be able to control the government & undermines government if not
  • the government wants to become more powerful
  • successful societies inhabit a narrow corridor in which strengthening governments are strongly coupled with strengthening civil societies

 

Comment by MaxRa on My AGI Threat Model: Misaligned Model-Based RL Agent · 2021-03-27T22:40:23.130Z · LW · GW

So rather than escaping and setting up shop on some hacked server somewhere, I expect the most likely scenario to be something like "The AI is engaging and witty and sympathetic and charismatic [...]"

(I'm new to thinking about this and would find responses and pointers really helpful) In my head this scenario felt unrealistic because I expect transformative-ish AI applications to come up before highly sophisticated AIs start socially manipulating their designers. Just for the sake of illustrating, I was thinking of stuff like stock investment AIs, product design AIs, military strategy AIs, companionship AIs, question answering AIs, which all seem to have the potential to throw major curves. Associated incidences would update safety culture enough to make the classic "AGI arguing itself out of a box" scenario unlikely. So I would worry more about scenarios were companies or governments feel like their hands are tied in allowing usage of/relying on potentially transformative AI systems.

Comment by MaxRa on Full-time AGI Safety! · 2021-03-01T21:46:55.229Z · LW · GW

Congrats, those are great news! :) I'd love to read your proposal, will shoot you a mail.

Comment by MaxRa on Conservatism in neocortex-like AGIs · 2021-02-12T15:41:59.070Z · LW · GW

Thanks, I find your neocortex-like AGI approach really illuminating.

Random thought:

(I think you also need to somehow set up the system so that "do nothing" is the automatically-acceptable default operation when every possibility is unpalatable.)

I was wondering if this is necessarily the best „everything is unpalatable“ policy. I could imagine that the best fallback option could also be something like „preserve your options while gathering information, strategizing and communicating with relevant other agents“, assuming that this is not unpalatable, too. I guess we may not yet trust the AGI to do this, option preservation might cause much more harm than doing nothing. But I still wonder if there are cases in which every option is unpalatable but doing nothing is clearly worse.

Comment by MaxRa on Rationality and Geoguessr · 2021-01-20T19:21:45.772Z · LW · GW

Thanks for sharing, just played my first round and it was a lot of fun! 

Comment by MaxRa on AI Winter Is Coming - How to profit from it? · 2020-12-10T22:07:48.917Z · LW · GW

Make bets here? I expect many people should be willing to bet against an AI winter. Would additionally give you some social credit if you win. I’d be interested in seeing some concrete proposals.

Comment by MaxRa on AI Research Considerations for Human Existential Safety (ARCHES) · 2020-10-30T10:15:31.914Z · LW · GW

Really enjoyed reading this. The section on "AI pollution" leading to a loss of control about the development of prepotent AI really interested me.

Avoiding [the risk of uncoordinated development of Misaligned Prepotent AI] calls for well-deliberated and respected assessments of the capabilities of publicly available algorithms and hardware, accounting for whether those capabilities have the potential to be combined to yield MPAI technology. Otherwise, the world could essentially accrue “AI-pollution” that might eventually precipitate or constitute MPAI.

  • I wonder how realistic it is to predict this e.g. would you basically need the knowledge to build it to have a good sense for that potential?
  • I also thought the idea of AI orgs dropping all their work once the potential for this concentrates in another org is relevant here - are there concrete plans when this happens?
  • Are there discussion about when AI orgs might want to stop publishing things? I only know of MIRI, but would they advise others like OpenAI or DeepMind to follow their example?
Comment by MaxRa on Predictive coding = RL + SL + Bayes + MPC · 2020-10-22T10:03:22.093Z · LW · GW

Thanks a lot for the elaboration!

in particular I still can't really put myself in the head of Friston, Clark, etc. so as to write a version of this that's in their language and speaks to their perspective.

Just a sidenote, one of my profs is part of the Bayesian CogSci crowd and was fairly frustrated with and critical of both Friston and Clark. We read one of Friston's papers in our journal club and came away thinking that Friston is reinventing a lot of wheels and using odd terms for known concepts.

For me, this paper by Sam Gershman helped a lot in understanding Friston's ideas, and this one by Laurence Aitchison and Máté Lengyel was useful, too. 

I would say that the generative models are a consortium of thousands of glued-together mini-generative-models

Cool, I like that idea, I previously thought about the models as fairly separated and bulky entities, that sounds much more plausible.

Comment by MaxRa on Predictive coding = RL + SL + Bayes + MPC · 2020-10-22T09:40:26.457Z · LW · GW

That's really interesting, I haven't thought about this much, but it seems very plausible and big if true (though I am likely biased as a Cognitive Science student). Do you think this might be turned into a concrete question to forecast for the Metaculus crowd, i.e. "Reverse-engineering neocortex algorithms will be the first way we get AGI"? The resolution might get messy if an org like DeepMind, with their fair share of computational neuroscientists, will be the ones who get there first, right?

Comment by MaxRa on Predictive coding = RL + SL + Bayes + MPC · 2020-10-21T09:57:08.035Z · LW · GW

As a (maybe misguided) side comment, model sketches like yours make me intuitively update for shorter AI timelines, because they give me a sense of a maturing field of computational cognitive science. Would be really interested in what others think about that.

Comment by MaxRa on Predictive coding = RL + SL + Bayes + MPC · 2020-10-21T09:54:13.132Z · LW · GW

That's super fascinating. I've dabbled a bit in all of those parts of your picture and seeing them put together like this feels really illuminating. I'd wish some predictive coding researcher would be so kind to give it a look, maybe somebody here knows someone?

During reading, I was a bit confused about the set of generative models or hypotheses. Do you have an example how this could concretely look like? For example, when somebody tosses me an apple, is there a generative model for different velocities and weights, or one generative model with an uncertainty distribution over those quantities? In the latter case, one would expect another updating-process acting "within" each generative model, right?

Comment by MaxRa on My computational framework for the brain · 2020-10-04T08:04:56.719Z · LW · GW

That was really interesting!:)

Your idea of subcortical spider detection reminded me of this post by Kaj Sotala, discussing the argument that it’s more about „peripheral“ attentional mechanisms having evolved to attend to spiders etc., and consequently being easier learned as dangerous.

These results suggest that fear of snakes and other fear-relevant stimuli is learned via the same central mechanisms as fear of arbitrary stimuli. Nevertheless, if that is correct, why do phobias so often relate to objects encountered by our ancestors, such as snakes and spiders, rather than to objects such as guns and electrical sockets that are dangerous now [10]? Because peripheral, attentional mechanisms are tuned to fear-relevant stimuli, all threat stimuli attract attention, but fear-relevant stimuli do so without learning (e.g., [56]). This answer is supported by evidence from conditioning experiments demonstrating enhanced attention to fear-relevant stimuli regardless of learning (Box 2), studies of visual search [57–59], and developmental psychology [60,61]. For example, infants aged 6–9 months show a greater drop in heart rate – indicative of heightened attention rather than fear – when they watch snakes than when they watch elephants [62].

Comment by MaxRa on Do we have updated data about the risk of ~ permanent chronic fatigue from COVID-19? · 2020-09-21T12:47:25.828Z · LW · GW

From a Nature news article last week:

One study7 of 143 people with COVID-19 discharged from a hospital in Rome found that 53% had reported fatigue and 43% had shortness of breath an average of 2 months after their symptoms started. A study of patients in China showed that 25% had abnormal lung function after 3 months, and that 16% were still fatigued8.
Comment by MaxRa on System 2 as working-memory augmented System 1 reasoning · 2019-11-14T11:13:16.548Z · LW · GW

I haven't read Stanovichs' papers you refer to, but in his book "Rationality and the reflective mind" he proposes a seperation of Type 2 processing into 1) serial associative cognition with a focal bias and 2) fully decoupled simulations for alternative hypothesis. (Just noting it because I found it useful for my own thinking.)

In fact, an exhaustive simulation of alternative worlds would guarantee correct responding in the [Wason selection] task. Instead [...] subjects accept the rule as given, assume it is true, and simply describe how they would go about verifying it. They reason from a single focal model— systematically generating associations from this focal model but never constructing another model of the situation. This is what I would term serial associative cognition with a focal bias. It is how I would begin to operationalize the satisficing bias in Type 2 processing posited in several papers by Evans (2006b; Evans, Over, & Handley, 2003). "
Comment by MaxRa on System 2 as working-memory augmented System 1 reasoning · 2019-11-14T10:59:37.129Z · LW · GW

I always understood bias to mean systematic deviations from the correct response (as in the bias-variance decomposition [1], e.g. a bias to be more overconfident, or the bias of being anchored to arbitrary numbers). I read your and Evans' interpretation of it more like bias meaning incorrect in some areas. As Type 2 processing seems to be very flexible and unconstrained, I thought that it might not necessarily be biased but simply sufficiently unconstrained and high variance to cause plenty of errors in many domains.

[1] https://miro.medium.com/max/2567/1*CgIdnlB6JK8orFKPXpc7Rg.png

PS: Thanks for your writing, I really enjoy it a lot.

Comment by MaxRa on Akrasia Tactics Review 3: The Return of the Akrasia · 2017-04-11T10:30:32.811Z · LW · GW

Since one month I do some sort of productivity gamification: I rate my mornings on a 1-5 scale with regard to

1) time spend doing something useful and

2) degree of distraction.

Plus if I get out of bed immediately after waking up, I get a plus point.

For every point that I don't achieve on these scales, I pay 50 cents to a charity.

A random morning of mine:

1) time was well spent, I started working early and kept at it until lunch -> 5/5

2) I had some problems focussing while reading -> 3/5

+1 because I got out of bed immediately

The major noticeable impact it has so far is that I get out of bed in the morning. Plus it gives me a chance to review, e.g. one hypotheses I made on the basis of the example: coffee decreases ability to focus.